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Joint pain at the knee is a common complaint. A knee joint has 3 parts - the thigh bone (femur), shin bone (tibia) and kneecap (patella) . Cartilage covers the places where the 3 bones meet, and allows them to slide over each other smoothly. Due to arthritis or injury, the cartilage in the knee gets worn out.

Conventional knee replacement requires a hospital stay of up to 10 days. This is followed by rehabilitation and a person may not be able to work for up to 3 months. During conventional knee replacement, a surgeon cuts away damaged bone and cartilage from the damaged knee and replaces it with an artificial joint made of metal alloy, plastic and polymer. Cartilage transplant technology is also being developed where cartilage is taken from other parts of the body to repair defects in the joint,

A knee replacement usually lasts for at least 10 years, after which a revision operation might be needed to replace it. Revision operations are more complicated and may not always be successful. After conventional surgery , there is a scar of 15-20 cm. 

Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) is done for partial knee replacements. The surgery usually does not require blood and is preferable for older patients. The scar is 7-10 cm long and the post-operative hospital stay is usually shorter. In  computer assisted surgery, cameras help the surgeon select and position the implant.

A metal bean shaped knee implant from Advance Bio-Surfaces is designed to replace the missing cartilage. It is made from a cobalt chrome alloy and has been approved for medical use in the US and Europe. The device is implanted through a 2-3 inch cut made in the knee. The operation to fit the implant in the knee takes less than an hour. Patients who undergone the implant operation have experienced a reduction in pain levels..


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